VRoom! blog - Trace cache - Part 2


It’s been a couple of months since I last posted about our work on a trace cache for VRroom, it’s become a bit of slog - trace cache bugs are the worst: suddenly out of nowhere your code branches off into the weeds, often caused by something that happened tens of thousands of clocks before. Short story, we’re pausing work on my trace cache implementation to get more important stuff done, long story: well read on

What is good about our current Trace Cache?

You’ll remember from the previous blog post about our trace cache that it’s pretty simple, the idea was to bolt on a direct mapped cache filled with traces extracted from the completion end of our commit engine that competed with the normal icache/branch-predictor/PC/decoder to provide decoded data directly to the rename units.

After the last blog post we integrated support to avoid traces from crossing instruction call/return transitions, this preserved the call prediction stacks in the BTC and made overall performance in the same ballpark as the existing performance.

Now that is up and working, it passes all our sanity tests, direct examination of the pipelines shows a higher issue rate (8 instructions per clock regularly which was the goal) but with a higher stall rate (because the ALUs are busy and the commit queue is filling) - which indicates that a well working trace cache probably needs an increase in the number of ALUs and/or load/store units to further increase performance - that in itself is not a bad thing it means we have more performance choices when choosing a final architecture.

What is bad about our current Trace Cache?

However while the back end pipelines are performing better the one bad thing that benchmarks show is that because our naive direct mapped trace cache bypasses the branch predictor and as a result it performs worse (about 15% worse) on branch prediction - you will recall we’re using a traditional dual combined branch predictor (bimodal and global history) - the trace cache is effectively embedding the bimodal BTC data in the cache, but not the global predictor data.

What we really need is a way to incorporate the global predictor into the trace cache tags, that way we can collect multiple traces for the same starting PC address (there are lots of examples of this in the literature on trace caches, it’s not a new idea).

This is not a trivial change, it means pulling apart the BTC and PC fetcher code and more closely integrating the trace cache at a lower level - the BTC needs to be able to track both trace streams and icache streams to update its predictors from both sources - the current BTC/PC fetcher are very focused on icache boundaries and predicting multiple branches within them, the data coming out of the trace cache tends to have arbitrary PC boundaries, and has unconditional branches elided - merging them more than we currently have is a non trivial piece of work.

Note that getting a direct mapped trace cache to ~5/6 the performance of the existing CPU is actually not that bad - it means we’re on the right track, just not there yet.


Our basic trace cache design seems to be functional, but doesn’t perform well enough yet - short to medium term it’s become a bit derail against making other progress so we’re going to set it aside for the moment, probably until the next time the BTC has been opened up and is spread over the desktop for some major rearrangement and then dig into integrating global history into the trace cache tags and BTC predictor updates from trace data.

This is not the last we’ve seen of the trace cache.

Our next work - some simple work on optimising moves and 0ing of registers - some minor instruction recognition in the renamer will allow commit Q entries to resolve earlier (more in parallel) reducing instruction dependencies on the fly.

Next time: Simple Renamer Optimisations